Arabic / Islamic geometry 01

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The Gregorian calendar was proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII and took effect in most Catholic states in , in which October 4, of the Julian calendar was followed by October 15 in the new calendar, correcting for the accumulated discrepancy between the Julian calendar and the equinox as of that date. When comparing historical dates, it’s important to note that the Gregorian calendar, used universally today in Western countries and in international commerce, was adopted at different times by different countries.

Britain and her colonies including what is now the United States , did not switch to the Gregorian calendar until , when Wednesday 2nd September in the Julian calendar dawned as Thursday the 14th in the Gregorian. The Gregorian calendar is a minor correction to the Julian. In the Julian calendar every fourth year is a leap year in which February has 29, not 28 days, but in the Gregorian, years divisible by are not leap years unless they are also divisible by

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Please check the archive for a list of past events. A new schedule will be posted in January, January Friday, January 26, , 6: Islamic pilgrimage routes have influenced the production of manuscripts, not only for those intended to be transported by pilgrims, but also for commercial transactions related to the pilgrimage itself. Pilgrimage and the mobility of the pilgrims has encouraged the development of manuscripts of several genres. Based on examples of representations of Mecca and Medina in manuscripts conserved in the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, Qatar, this lecture will attempt to demonstrate the variety of images of the holy sites — whether executed on scrolls, bound volumes or talismanic documents — as well as the different functions of such illustrations.

Motifs and Artisans from Turkey, Iran and India She completed her Ph. For the Academic year, Mounia Chekhab-Abudaya has been undertaking a research project in Harvard university as a post-doctoral research associate, as part of the Aga Khan Programme for Islamic Art and Architecture. Tuesday, January 30, , 5: Colin Eisler on Durer’s Genius of Syphilis: This event is only open to the Institute’s Community February.

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Islamists often identify what they see as a historical struggle between Christianity and Islam , dating back as far as the Crusades , among other historical conflicts between practitioners of the two respective religions. Osama bin Laden , for example, almost invariably described his enemies as aggressive and his call for action against them as defensive. Defensive jihad differs from offensive jihad by being ” fard al-ayn”, or a personal obligation of all Muslims, rather than “fard al-kifaya”, a communal obligation, that is, some Muslims may perform it but it is not required of others.

Hence, framing a fight as defensive has the advantage of both appearing to be a victim rather than appearing to be an aggressor, and giving the struggle the very highest religious priority for all good Muslims. Many of the violent terrorist groups use the name of jihad to fight against certain Western nations and Israel.

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Also one must register to a known matrimonial site as they provide secure services and special privacy is given to the members on those sites. Shadi is a bond between two individuals. Wedding is called as “Shadi” in south asian languages. Many of the Pakistani Muslim matrimony customs are a combination of local, religious, and family traditions.

According to Islam, it is considered both a religious duty and a social necessity to get married. The ceremony of shadi is generally a well-attended affair, though only two male witnesses are required to make it official. The wedding always retains a spirit of simplicity, in accordance with the tenets of Islam. Marriage bureaus are established for matchmaking. It is run by the people who are experienced and skilled in matchmaking.

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Shadi is a bond between two individuals. Wedding is called as “Shadi” in south asian languages.

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Dar-al-Jil, , p. Islamic leaders go to extraordinary means to hide the Gospel of Jesus from Muslims. Just as Satan wails at a crucifix at an exorcism – the Islamic cult member normally wails at the sight of the Christian Bible. A false prophet can always be recognized, because he attacks the true prophet. A false Bible can be recognized, because it contradicts the true Bible. Islam goes one step further.

First Islam tries to gain acceptance by attesting to the truth and validity of both the Christian and Jewish holy books. But, it then clearly steps out of the light, exposing itself to its diabolical agenda, by contradicting and falsifying the facts and teachings in both these books. Also, question the “dark side” of a Religion such as Islam that requires you to only recite salah and prayers like the Namaz, in a language Arabic you do not understand.

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It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses.

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Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record. Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises.

I should also admit that these sketches are based on the original photographs of the studies, most of the original drawings having been lost — the photographs being the only record I have of them, but which are in too poor condition to be reproduced. The illustration above, from which the three following details have been taken, is of one of the original drawings I made in the early s.

The width shown is around mm of the original. Although the paper has discoloured slightly with the passage of time, the draftsmanship can still be examined. It is placed here to show something of the concentration that goes into study of this character of geometry as well as the accuracy I tried to maintain in drafting. Nowadays, drawing with computer programmes, there are still inaccuracies, but they are easier to deal with than when drawing with ink on paper.

At this degree of magnification it is possible to see how the grain of the paper, a smooth cartridge, interacts with the ink from the drafting pen. It is probable that the two pens used here were 0. You can see there is some blotting at the beginning of lines — look at the red lines top right — as well as a little unevenness in line thickness. I believe I never went over any lines twice as that had a considerable effect on the outcome.

In the central junction the red lines have created a star effect.

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Introduction Radiocarbon, or Carbon dating, was developed by W. It is perhaps one of the most widely used and best known absolute dating methods and has become an indispensable part of an archaeologist’s tool-kit. In , Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for radiocarbon dating.

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Islamic State or IS , declaring itself a worldwide caliphate. I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam, Muslims, and Islamists. The Arabs call it ‘Daesh’ and I will be calling them the ‘Daesh cutthroats. For their guiding principles, the leaders of the Islamic State The group circulates images of Wahhabi religious textbooks from Saudi Arabia in the schools it controls.

Videos from the group’s territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van. Saudi practices also followed by the group include the establishment of religious police to root out “vice” and enforce attendance at salat prayers, the widespread use of capital punishment, and the destruction or re-purposing of any non-Sunni religious buildings. It condemns later caliphates and the Ottoman Empire for deviating from what it calls pure Islam, and seeks to revive the original Wahhabi project of the restoration of the caliphate governed by strict Salafist doctrine.

Following Salafi-Wahhabi tradition, ISIL condemns the followers of secular law as disbelievers, putting the current Saudi Arabian government in that category. Islamic eschatology One difference between ISIL and other Islamist and jihadist movements, including al-Qaeda , is the group’s emphasis on eschatology and apocalypticism — that is, a belief in a final Day of Judgment by God, and specifically, a belief that the arrival of one known as Imam Mahdi is near.

ISIL believes that it will defeat the army of “Rome” at the town of Dabiq , in fulfilment of prophecy. References to the End Times fill Islamic State propaganda. It’s a big selling point with foreign fighters, who want to travel to the lands where the final battles of the apocalypse will take place. The civil wars raging in those countries today [Iraq and Syria] lend credibility to the prophecies.

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